If you would like to learn more about old forests, here is a good place to start!
There have been many books, reports, magazine articles, and videos produced about old growth forests around the world but only a few about our old-growth Acadian forests in eastern Canada - Wapane'kati. Please let us know if you have other resources that we can list on this website.


Eastern Old-Growth Forests: Prospects for rediscovery and recovery. 1996. Mary Byrd David (editor). Island Press. 399pp.

Forest Management Guidelines to Protect Native Biodiversity in the Greater Fundy Ecosystem: Matthew Betts, and Graham Forbes. New Brunswick Co-operative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of New Brunswick, 2005. 110 pp.

Journeys through Eastern Old-Growth Forests: 2014. Jamie Simpson. Nimbus. 176 pp.

Restoring the Acadian Forest. Second edition. 2015. Jamie Simpson. Nimbus. 184 pp.


NSNT Fact Sheet on the State of Old Growth Forests in Nova Scotia

A walk in the woods: Acadian old-growth forests

The Acadian Forest


MTRI Old Forest poster


Experience an Old Growth Forest, Jenna Martin-Evans

Ayers Lake Old Growth Acadian Forest, New Brunswick

Macphail Woods Ecological Forestry Project - Video Gallery

Amazing Places: Goose River, New Brunswick


Old Forest Scoring App


Photo Gallery: Nick Hawkins, Conservation Photographer

Alain Belliveau

Dan Hutt

Jason Headley

Relevant Papers and Reports:

Wein, R. W., Burzynski, M. P., Sreenivasa, B. A., & Tolonen, K. 1987. Bog profile evidence of fire and vegetation dynamics since 3000 years BP in the Acadian forest. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65: 1180-1186.

Lynds, A. and Leduc, J. 1995. Old forests of Nova Scotia. NSDNR Occasional Paper No. 1. 18 pp.

Fraver, Shawn, Robert G. Wagner, and Michael Day. 2002. Dynamics of coarse woody debris following gap harvesting in the Acadian forest of central Maine, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 2094-2105.

Stewart, B. J., P. D. Neily, E. J. Quigley, A. P. Duke, L. K. Benjamin. 2003. Selected Nova Scotia Old Growth Forests: Age, ecology, structure, scoring. The Forestry Chronicle 79: 632-644. Mosseler, A. J. A. Lynds, and J. E. Major. 2003. Old-growth forests of the Acadian Forest Region. Environ. Rev. 11: S47-S77.

Loo, Judy, and N. Ives. 2003. The Acadian forest: historical condition and human impacts. The Forestry Chronicle 79: 462-474.

Selva, Steven B. 2003. Using calicioid lichens and fungi to assess ecological continuity in the Acadian Forest Ecoregion of the Canadian Maritimes. The Forestry Chronicle 79: 550-558.

Mosseler, A., I. Thompson, and B. A. Pendrel. 2003. Overview of old-growth forests in Canada from a science perspective. Environmental Reviews 11: S1-S7.

Moola, F. M., and L. Vasseur. 2004. Recovery of late-seral vascular plants in a chronosequence of post-clearcut forest stands in coastal Nova Scotia, Canada. Plant Ecology 172: 183-197.

McMullin, R. T., Duinker, P. N., Cameron, R. P., Richardson, D. H., & Brodo, I. M. 2008. Lichens of coniferous old-growth forests of southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada: diversity and present status. The Bryologist, 111: 620-637.

Poulin, J. F., Villard, M. A., Edman, M., Goulet, P. J., & Eriksson, A. M. 2008. Thresholds in nesting habitat requirements of an old forest specialist, the Brown Creeper (Certhia americana), as conservation targets. Biological Conservation, 141:, 1129-1137.

Owen, Rochelle J., Peter N. Duinker, and Thomas M. Beckley. 2009. Capturing old-growth values for use in forest decision-making. Environmental management 43: 237-248.

Poulin, Jean-François, Marc-André Villard, and Samuel Haché. 2010. Short-term demographic response of an old forest specialist to experimental selection harvesting. Ecoscience 17: 20-27.

Pesklevits, Anthony, Peter N. Duinker, and Peter G. Bush. 2011. Old-growth Forests: Anatomy of a Wicked Problem. Forests 2: 343-356.

Smith, Matthew J., Graham J. Forbes, and Matthew G. Betts. 2013. Landscape configuration influences gap-crossing decisions of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Biological conservation 168: 176-183.